2002 年 3 月考题
TRANSLATION TEST (1) (30 MINUTES)
Directions: Translate the following passage into Chinese and write your version in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET.
Foundations are tax-free institutions that are created to give grants to both individuals and nonprofit organizations for activities that range from education, research, and the arts to support for the poor and the upkeep of exotic gardens and old mansions. They provide a means by which wealthy people and corporations can in effect decide how their tax payments will be spent, for they are based on money that otherwise would go to the government in taxes. From a small beginning at the turn of the century they have become a very important factor in shaping developments in higher education and the arts.
Think tanks and university research institutes are nonprofit organizations that have been developed to provide settings for experts in various academic disciplines. In this way, they may devote their time to the study of policy alternatives free from the teaching and departmental duties that are part of the daily routine for most members of the academic community. Supported by foundation grants and government contracts, they are a major source of the new ideas that are discussed in the policy-formation groups. 
分析:
① Foundations are tax-free institutions (that are created togive grants to both individuals and nonprofit organizations for activities (that range from education, research, and the arts to support for the poor and the upkeep of exotic gardens and old mansions)).
译文:基金会是免税组织,其设立的目的是资助个人和非赢利性组织的活动,包括教育、调研、艺术、扶贫和维护奇园古宅。
考点: 层次断句:这句话其实也相当复杂。句中套了两句定语从句,一句修饰 institutions ,另一句修饰 activities ,另一个难点是 support 前的 to 到底承接哪里,其实它和前面的 range from 是构成了 from…to… 的短语,判断了 to 的结构后,就不会把 to 后的内容理解成目的了,从而翻译成“以此”了。
       定语从句的翻译:第一句是重复法, Foundations are tax-free institutions that are created to…→ 基金会是免税组织,其设立 ……
第二句是省略法, activities that range from education, research, and the arts→ 活动,包括教育、调研及艺术
       转态译法:省略被动词  that are created to→ 其设立
       the arts 的翻译: the arts 对于词汇较好的考生来说极易理解成“人文学科;文科”等,不过大家有没有注意到定冠词 the ?原来 arts 解释为“人文学科;文科”,但 the arts 相当于 fine art ,解释为“艺术”。
       转性译法:形容词 → 名词    support for the poor→ 扶贫
                                   the poor 又一次考察到 the+adj 表示一类人
                 名词 → 动词      the upkeep of→ 进行养护
                 介词 → 动词      from…to…→ 包括
        具体译法:成语法: exotic gardens and old mansions→ 奇园古宅
② They provide a means (by which) wealthy people and corporations can in effect decide how their tax payments will be spent, for they are based on money (that otherwise would go to the government in taxes).
译文:基金会提供了一种方式可以让有钱人和大公司能实际支配花去税款的方式,因为基金会依赖于这笔税款,这些税款如果不用于基金会,就会划并到政府税收中去。
考点: wealthy people 翻译成“有钱人”可以,但 wealthy corporations 翻译成“有钱的公司”语义就不明确了,可以翻译成“大公司”。
定语从句的翻译:省略法: They provide a means by which wealthy people…→ 基金会提供了一种方式可以让有钱人 ……
for they are based on money that otherwise would go to the government in taxes→ 因为这些税款如果不用于基金会,就会划并到政府税收中去。
          转态译法:被主交换: how their tax payments will be spent→ 花去税款
          转性译法:副词 → 名词   how→ 方式
③ From a small beginning at the turn of the century they have become a very important factor in shaping developments in higher education and the arts.
译文:本世纪初,基金会数量并不多 / 比较少,而现在已在高等教育和艺术发展的格局中显得举足轻重了。
考点: 转性译法:动词 → 名词    shape→ 格局
       正反译法: small→ 不多 
    增词译法: From a small beginning 这句话许多考生在翻译时根本没有注意到,有人理解成和 at the turn of the century 相同的意思,其实在 small 后面省略 number ,表示基金会数量在本世纪一开始不多。在翻译时应补充“数量”。
       换序译法: at the turn of the century 在句首翻译
④ Think tanks and university research institutes are nonprofit organizations (that have been developed to provide settings for experts in various academic  disciplines).
译文1:智囊团和大学中的研究机构是非赢利性组织,为不同学术领域的专家提供了平台。
译文2:智囊团和大学中的研究机构是不同学术领域专家栖息的非赢利性组织。
考点: think tanks : organization or group of experts providing advice and ideas on national or commercial problems. 为国家或商业问题提供建议、解决方法的专家小组或组织;智囊团。
       定语从句的翻译:省略法
    意译: settings→ 平台
    转态译法:省略不译
    转性译法:名词 → 动词   settings→ 栖息
⑤ In this way, they may devote their time to the study of policy alternativesfree from the teaching and departmental duties (that are part of the daily routine for most members of the academic community).
译文:正因为如此 / 通过这种方式,这些专家就可以从大多数学术人士习以为常的日常教学和科系公务中脱离出来,全身心地投入到政策的研究中去。
考点: alternative 的翻译: alternative 作为名词有以下常见解释:
两者(或两者以上)择其一
eg. People above 30 have the alternative of marrying or remaining a bachelor.
30 岁以上的人可以选择结婚,也可以选择独身。
数种可能性(解决办法)之一
eg. One of the alternatives open to you is to resign.
你面前的一项选择就是辞职。
(选择题的)选项
eg. In each question, you have 4 alternatives to choose, among which there is only a correct answer.
每到问题有四个选项,其中只有一个正确答案。
替代品
eg. In modern society, we must find some biodegradable alternatives to plastics in order to avoid environmental protection.
在现代社会中,我们必须找到一些可降解的材料来代替塑料,从而避免环境污染。
free from 的翻译:文中的 free from 相当于 without 的意思,表示“脱离; 没有”等意思,其同义词有 lacking, short of, excluding, immune to 等
换序译法:从原文分析,“脱离教学和公务”在前,而“投入政策研究”在后,
两者是时间的先后关系。因此可以先翻译 free from 的部分,然后再翻译 devote their time to the study of policy 。
           定语从句的翻译:前置法
           转性译法:形容词 → 动词      free→ 脱离
                       名词 → 动词        routine→ 习以为常
⑥ Supported by foundation grants and government contracts, they are a major source of   the new ideas (that are discussed in the policy-formation groups). 
译文:有了 / 得到基金会的资助和政府的合约(保护),这些专家就能够为政策的制定提供源源不断的新思维。
考点: 转性译法:名词 → 形容词   source→ 源源不断的
中级口译翻译真题答案及讲评(2002年3月英译汉): http://insuns.com/article/674-1.html