2002 年 3 月考题
TRANSLATION TEST (1) (30 MINUTES)
Directions: Translate the following passage into Chinese and write your version in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET.
Foundations are tax-free institutions that are created to give grants to both individuals and nonprofit organizations for activities that range from education, research, and the arts to support for the poor and the upkeep of exotic gardens and old mansions. They provide a means by which wealthy people and corporations can in effect decide how their tax payments will be spent, for they are based on money that otherwise would go to the government in taxes. From a small beginning at the turn of the century they have become a very important factor in shaping developments in higher education and the arts.
Think tanks and university research institutes are nonprofit organizations that have been developed to provide settings for experts in various academic disciplines. In this way, they may devote their time to the study of policy alternatives free from the teaching and departmental duties that are part of the daily routine for most members of the academic community. Supported by foundation grants and government contracts, they are a major source of the new ideas that are discussed in the policy-formation groups. 
分析:
① Foundations are tax-free institutions (that are created togive grants to both individuals and nonprofit GetWord("nonprofit"); organizations for activities (that range from education, research, and the arts to support for the poor and the upkeep of exotic gardens and old mansions)).
译文:基金会是免税组织,其设立的目的是资助个人和非赢利性组织的活动,包括教育、调研、艺术、扶贫和维护奇园古宅。
考点: 层次断句:这句话其实也相当复杂。句中套了两句定语从句,一句修饰 institutions ,另一句修饰 activities ,另一个难点是 support 前的 to 到底承接哪里,其实它和前面的 range from 是构成了 from…to… 的短语,判断了 to 的结构后,就不会把 to 后的内容理解成目的了,从而翻译成“以此”了。
定语从句的翻译:第一句是重复法, Foundations are tax-free institutions that are created to…→ 基金会是免税组织,其设立 ……
第二句是省略法, activities that range from education, research, and the arts→ 活动,包括教育、调研及艺术
转态译法:省略被动词 that are created to→ 其设立
the arts 的翻译: the arts 对于词汇较好的考生来说极易理解成“人文学科;文科”等,不过大家有没有注意到定冠词 the ?原来 arts 解释为“人文学科;文科”,但 the arts 相当于 fine art ,解释为“艺术”。
转性译法:形容词 → 名词 support for the poor→ 扶贫
the poor 又一次考察到 the+adj 表示一类人
名词 → 动词 the upkeep of→ 进行养护
介词 → 动词 from…to…→ 包括
具体译法:成语法: exotic gardens and old mansions→ 奇园古宅
② They provide a means (by which) wealthy people and corporations can in effect decide how their tax payments will be spent, for they are based on money (that otherwise would go to the government in taxes).
译文:基金会提供了一种方式可以让有钱人和大公司能实际支配花去税款的方式,因为基金会依赖于这笔税款,这些税款如果不用于基金会,就会划并到政府税收中去。
考点: wealthy people 翻译成“有钱人”可以,但 wealthy corporations 翻译成“有钱的公司”语义就不明确了,可以翻译成“大公司”。
定语从句的翻译:省略法: They provide a means by which wealthy people…→ 基金会提供了一种方式可以让有钱人 ……
for they are based on money that otherwise would go to the government in taxes→ 因为这些税款如果不用于基金会,就会划并到政府税收中去。
转态译法:被主交换: how their tax payments will be spent→ 花去税款
转性译法:副词 → 名词 how→ 方式
③ From a small beginning at the turn of the century they have become a very important factor in shaping developments in higher education and the arts.
译文:本世纪初,基金会数量并不多 / 比较少,而现在已在高等教育和艺术发展的格局中显得举足轻重了。
考点: 转性译法:动词 → 名词 shape→ 格局
正反译法: small→ 不多 
增词译法: From a small beginning 这句话许多考生在翻译时根本没有注意到,有人理解成和 at the turn of the century 相同的意思,其实在 small 后面省略 number ,表示基金会数量在本世纪一开始不多。在翻译时应补充“数量”。
换序译法: at the turn of the century 在句首翻译
2002年3月中级口译翻译真题答案及讲评(英译汉): http://insuns.com/article/267-1.html
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