Chapter One  词义的选择、引申和褒贬

  一.        词义的选择

  (一)        根据词性

  He likes physics.

  They are shining like gold.

  Like knows like.

  (二) 根据上下文联系

  He is the last man to do it.

  He should be the last to blame.

  He is the last man to come.

  He is the last person for such a job.

  二.        词义的引申

  (一)        将词义做抽象化的引申

  1.        将表示具体形象的词译成该形象代表的属性

  Every life has its roses and thorns.每个人的生活有甜有苦。

  There is a mixture of the tiger and the ape in the character of them.

  他们的性格既残暴,又狡猾。

  2.        将带有特征性形象的词译成该形象所代表的词

  see-sawing between partly good and faintly bad

  时好时坏这两种情况不断地交替出现

  Their troops goosestepped into power.

  他们的军队耀武扬威地夺取了政权。

  (二)        将词义做具体化的引申

  The car in front of me stopped and I missed the green.

  我前面的车停下来了,我错过了绿灯。

  三.        词义的褒贬

  (一)        英语中有些词本身具有褒贬意义

  He was a man of high renown.

  他是位有名望的人。

  His notoriety didn’t come until his death.

  他的恶名是他死后才传开的。

  (二)        中立意义的词在上下文中译出褒贬

  The politician talked about his hopes and ambitions.

  我们要求他谈了他的希望和抱负

  He had lied to me and made me the tool of his wicked deeds.

  他欺骗了我,使我成了他进行罪恶勾当的工具。

  练习:

  Information technology will be at the heart of global economic competition in the 21st century.

  信息技术将成为21世纪全球经济竞争的中心。

  The largest American cities are a diverse group, but they share certain problems.

  美国的大城市形形色色,却有许多共同的问题。

  The expansion of educational opportunities promoted the American ideal of equal opportunity for all.

  由于教育不断普及,推动了机遇面前人人平等的美国理想的实现。

  Race relations in the US continue to be a thorny problem.

  美国的种族关系一直是棘手的问题。

  The diverse population presents great challenges to the society, racism and discrimination remain problems.

  多民族的人口结构也给社会带来一定的问题,种族歧视和偏见依然存在。

  Both newspapers and magazines are heavily dependent on advertising for financial support.

  报纸和杂志的经费来源主要是依靠广告收入。

  Geography has given the US extensive and accessible resources, fertile land, and a beneficial climate.

  地理位置为美国提供了丰富的可利用资源,肥沃的土地和有利的气候。

  The percentage of US children living without their father present has ballooned.

  美国没有父亲的单亲孩子比例激增。

  The American greeting card and decoration industries encourage the celebration of both religious and secular holidays.

  美国的节日贺卡和装饰业增添了宗教节日和习俗节日的欢乐气氛。

  Between 1689 and 1763, Great Britain and France fought a series of wars which involved the North American colonies.

  1689年至1763年间英法两国连年战争,使北美的欧洲殖民地也卷入其中。

  The modern American economy has never been completely free from government involvement。

  现代美国经济从来没有完全脱离过政府的干预。

  The increase in DINK families has shattered the traditional idea of Chinese family。

  丁克家庭的增长冲击了传统的中国家庭观念。

  Chapter Two  词类转译

  一.        转译为动词

  1.        名词转译为动词

  Rockets have found application for the exploration of the universe.

  火箭已用来探索宇宙。

  2.        含有动词意味的名词转译为动词

  The sight and sound of our plane filled me with special longing.

  看到我们的飞机,听到飞机的声音,令我特别神往。

  3.        英语中以er结尾的名词在句中不指身份和职业,而含有动词意味,译为动词

  I think my sister is a better singer than I.

  我认为我姐姐比我唱的好。

  二.        转译为名词

  1.        名词派生的动词

  Formality has always characterized their relationship.

  他们之间的关系有一个特点就是以礼相待。

  2.        名词转化的动词

  This machine is designed to burn up if overused.

  这个机器,按其设计,如果过度使用就会烧毁。

  练习:

  For millions of immigrants, the Statue of Liberty was their first sight of the promising land.

  数百万移民踏上这片充满希望的土地,第一眼看到的是自由女神像。

  One thing that often leads people to move is the desire for better climate, more attractive scenery, more agreeable living.

  导致人们迁居的原因往往是向往宜人的气候,迷人的景色和惬意的生活。

  The American airline industry has enjoyed significant expansion in the last twenty years.

  过去的20年中,美国的航空运输业迅速发展。

  The growing concentration of wealth in the hands of a few people raised social and political issues.

  财富逐渐集中在少数人手中,引发了许多社会问题和政治问题。

  Population grew both as a result of natural increase and of continued immigration.

  人口的增长是自然增长和不断移民的结果。

  The American economy is organized in single-owner businesses, partnerships and corporations.

  美国经济的组织方式是个人所有制,合伙制和公司制。

  Chapter Three 分句 合句法

  一.        分句法

  (一)        把原句中一个单词译成句子

  1.        副词

  They, not surprisingly, did not respond at all.

  他们根本没有答复,这是不足为奇。

  2.        形容词

  He talked with understandable pride about his daughter.

  他在谈到他女儿的时候很自豪,这是可以理解的。

  3.        名词

  The inside of each house depended on the personality of its owner.

  每个房间内怎样的布置,这要看各个使用者的性格了。

  (二) 把短语翻译成句子

  1.        名词短语

  Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, a universally accepted law.

  能量既不能被创造也不能被消灭,这是一条普遍公认的规律。

  2.        介词短语

  Their power increased with their number.

  他们人数增加了,力量也随之增加。

  (三) 把原文中的一个句子拆开, 变成两个句子

  Another round of war in the region clearly would put strains on international relations.

  如果该地区再次发生战争, 显然会使国际关系处于紧张状态。

  His failure to observe the safety regulations resulted in an accident to the machinery.

  因为他没有遵守安全规则,机器出了故障。

  二.        合句法

  (一)        把原文中两个或以上的简单句译成一个句子

  There are men here from all over the country. Many of them are from the north.

  从全国各地来的人中有许多是北方人。

  (二)        把原文中的主从复合句译成一句

  When we praise the Chinese leadership and the people, we are not merely being polite.

  我们对中国领导人和中国人民的赞扬不仅仅是处于礼貌。

  练习:

  Americans pride themselves on their independence and their right to make up their own minds.

  美国人有独立的精神,有自主的权利,并为此感到自豪。

  The popularity of television and the serious problem of piracy have contributed to the decline of movie industry.

  电视普及,盗版问题严重,导致了电影业的衰落。

  Hawaii enjoys a mild climate year-round because of the season winds, the temperature varies little from day to night and from summer to winter.

  由于受季风影响,夏威夷一年四季如春,春夏秋冬,白天黑夜,温差很小。

  Americans take shorter and fewer vacations than people in most other industrialized countries.

  与大部分工业化国家相比,美国人休假时间短,休假次数少。

  The importance of strengthening ties between the US and China will grow even greater with the beginning of a new century.

  随着新世纪的开始,加强美中关系变得越来越重要。

  Growing labor shortage in some field will give workers more rights to demand higher wages.

  某些产业劳动力日益短缺,将使工人更有权利要求较高的工资。

  New York has become one of the largest and most powerful cities in the western world with a population of more than 8 million.

  纽约已经成为西方世界最具影响力的大城市之一,目前人口已达800万。

  Despite its national wealth, poverty and serious income difference exist throughout the US.

  虽然美国是个富裕的国家,但全国仍然存在着贫穷和严重的收入差别问题。

  The researchers want to perfect cloning in cows because of the large market for expensive high-quality beef.

  科研人员希望完善克隆牛技术,因为昂贵的高质牛肉市场庞大。

  Chapter Four 定语从句

  一.        限制性定从

  (一)        前置法

  There will come a day when people of the world live a happy life under the sun of socialism.

  全世界人民在社会主义阳光下过幸福生活的一天是会到来的。

  (二)        后置法

  1.        译成并列分句,重复英语先行词

  They are striving for the ideal which is close to the heart of every Chinese and for which, in the past, many Chinese have laid down their lives.

  他们正在为实现一个理想而努力,这个理想是每个中国人所珍惜的,在过去,许多中国人曾为此牺牲了自己的生命。

  He unselfishly contributed his uncommon talents and spirit to this career which today helps him reach his goal.

  他把自己非凡的才智和精力无私地献给了这项事业,而这项事业今天已使他实现了目标。

  2.        译成并列分句,省略英语先行词

  It is he who received the letter that announced the death of his uncle.

  是他接到那封信,说他的叔叔去世了。

  (三)        融合法

  There are many people who want to see the film.

  许多人要看这部电影。

  二.        非限制性定语从句

  (一)        前置法

  Her laughter, which was very infectious, broke the silence.

  她的富有感染力的笑声打破了沉默。

  (二)        后置法

  1.        译成并列分句

  (1)        从句后置,重复关系词代表的含义

  They toured the Forbidden city, where the Chinese emperors had once lived in lofty splendor.

  他们参观了紫禁城,从前的中国皇帝曾在那里过着奢华显赫的生活。

  (2)        从句后置,省略关系词代表的含义

  After dinner, they resumed their talk, which continued well into the night.

  饭后,他们继续会谈,直到深夜。

  (3)        从句前置,重复关系词代表的含义

  This war, however, more complex than the last one, which was a collision among the imperialist powers over the spoils of markets, resources and territories.

  上一次战争是帝国主义列强之间争夺市场,资源和领土的冲突,而这次战争却比上一次复杂。

  2.        译成独立句

  He had talked to the president, who assured him that everything that could be done would be done.

  他和总统谈过话,总统向他保证,凡是能作到的都将去做。


北外口译翻译技巧: http://insuns.com/article/18882-1.html