汉语中的两大成分地位较低,分别是宾语和定语。在英译汉中,较长的宾语从句常常会转化为名词词组,比如在第一个例句中的“how”如果翻译为“ 如何化去税款”这个宾语从句,在汉语中就显得不伦不类,所有一些5W1H的疑问词基本上都有可能转化为名词,如when(时间),where(地点),who(人选),why(原因)。此外,对于修饰语较多的名词性短语,汉语也不喜欢用定语进行堆砌,而偏向用简单的主谓短语,如第二个例子中把 “the most skeptical Gates”翻译成“一个持怀疑态度的盖茨”,就不如变成主谓短语“盖茨对此持怀疑态度”。

    They provide a means by which wealthy people and corporations can in effect decide how their tax payments will be spent.

    基金会提供了一种方式,可以让有钱人和大公司能实际支配花去税款的方式。

    But the most skeptical Gates of the new millennium is someone who evinces a passion for giving and government aid.

    但新千年盖茨对此持怀疑态度,热衷于施舍和政府援助。

    Now, the debate has shifted away from the ethics of baby-making and toward the morality of cloning embryos for their cells and tissues, which might be used to treat diseases.

    现在,争论已经从制造婴儿是否违背伦理,转到为提取用于治疗疾病的细胞和组织而克隆胚胎是否违背道德。

    But such self-interest is hardly enlightened.

    但这种做法只考虑个人利益,自然难以获得支持。

    The project budget sustains both the existence of graduate students and the fiscal solvency of the university.

    研究生是否存在,大学是否存在资金偿还能力,这些都取决于项目预算。


英语口译翻译原则:名词词组与分句互译原则: http://insuns.com/article/18879-1.html