由于英语是主语显著语(subject-prominent language),构建在主谓轴(subject-predicate pivot)上,主语决定了句法结构;汉语为语义性语言,其中主语的重要性相对较低,无主语的现象比比皆是。因此在汉英转化中最重要的就是确定主语,主语选择成功了,句子越翻越顺;选择失败,考生越翻越累。主语的确定归根结底有三种方法:使用原主语;重新确定主语;增补主语

  这一目标的实现,最直接的应该是老百姓住得更宽敞了,更舒服了。

  The citizens will live more spaciously and comfortably, benefiting most directly from achieving the goal.

  The idea of a national ID, however, was locked out of earlier drafts of legislation by a coalition of civil rights and ethnic groups, who opposed a requirement that all non-citizens carry identifying documents.

  然而,持自由论观点的民众和少数民族反对一切美国公民必须随身携带身份证的规定,他们结成联盟,推翻了立法的最初几次草案中关于实施全国统一身份证的主张。 

  其实,撇开数学,绕过那一大堆公式,一门学科的基本思想还是可以被我们理解和欣赏的。

  To be frank, if we leave aside mathematics and bypass the abundant formulas, the basic principles of the discipline (of science) are understandable and appreciable.

  They cannot control who crosses their borders either physically or culturally.

  无论是外人入境,或是文化入侵,政府都已无能为力。

  They have been increasingly chagrined by Washington’s tendency to ignore the international consensus on issues ranging from the use of land mines to the Kyoto climate change treaty.

  从地雷禁用条款到京都防止气候变暖条约等一些列问题,美国政府总是对国际舆论置若罔闻,使得这些(倒戈)国家越来越失望/懊恼。


英语口译翻译原则:主语确定原则: http://insuns.com/article/18875-1.html