Section B

  Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

  Passage One

  When Americans refer to various parts of the country, the way in which they divide the country and the terms they use may be confusing to foreign visitors. When referring to the part of the United States that lies between Canada and Mexico, citizens of Alaska speak of “the Lower Forty-Eight.” Citizens of “the Lower Forty-Eight” have long referred to this same territory as “the United States.” People living in the state of Hawaii refer to the rest of the country as “the Mainland” and refer to their own state as “the Islands.”

  People in “the Lower Forty-Eight” divide that part of the United States in ways that are partly political, partly geographical. New England is that section of the country north and east of New York State, settled 300 years ago by the English. The South is the area of the country east of the Mississippi River and south of the Ohio River.

  The Midwest is defined differently by different dictionaries. Perhaps the most accepted definition is: the area between the Appalachian Mountains on the east and the Rocky Mountains on the west and north of the Ohio and Missouri Rivers.

  Americans also speak of the Southwest, which includes particularly Arizona, New Mexico, and Western Texas.

  The Northwest is clearly the states of Washington and Oregon. The state of California is often referred to as the West Coast.

  Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard.

  26What do citizens of Alaska call the rest of the mainland part of the country?

  27.Which section of the country is New England?

  28.Which state is not included in the Southwest?

  Passage Two

  Most people picture sharks as huge, powerful, frightening predators, ready at any moment to use their sharp teeth to attack unwary swimmers for no reason. This idea of sharks, however, contains many misconceptions.

  First, there are about 350 species of shark, and not all of them are large. They range in size from the dwarf shark, which can be only 6 inches long and can be held in the palm of the hand, to the whale shark, which can be more than 55 feet long.

  A second misconception concerns the number and type of teeth, which can vary tremendously among the different species of shark. A shark can have from one to seven sets of teeth at the same time, and some types of sharks can have several hundred teeth in each jaw. It is true that the fierce and predatory species do possess extremely sharp and brutal teeth used to rip their prey apart. Many other types of sharks, however, have teeth more adapted for grabbing and holding than for cutting and slashing.

  Finally, not all sharks are predatory animals ready to strike at humans without warning. In fact, only 12 of the 350 species of shark have been known to attack humans, and a shark needs to be provoked in order to attack. The types of shark that have the worst record with humans are the tiger shark, the bull shark, and the great white shark. However, for most species of shark, even some of the largest types, there are no known instances of attacks on humans.

  Questions 29 to 31 are based on the passage you have just heard.

  29.Which of the following is true about sharks?

  30.What is a misconception about the teeth of sharks?

  31.Which of the following is NOT true concerning sharks’ attacks on humans?

  Passage Three

  The United States is well known for its network of major highways designed to help a driver get from one place to another in the shortest possible time. Although these wide modern roads are generally smooth and well maintained, with few sharp curves and straight sections, a direct route is not always the most enjoyable one. Large highways often pass by scenic areas and interesting small towns. Furthermore, these highways generally connect large urban centers, which means that they become crowded with heavy traffic during rush hours, when the “fast, direct” route becomes a very slow route.

  However, there is almost always another route to take if you are not in a hurry. Not far from the relatively new “superhighways,” there are often older, less heavily traveled roads which go through the countryside. Some of these are good two lane roads; others are uneven roads curving through the country. These secondary routes may go up steep slopes, along high cliffs, or down frightening hillside to towns lying in deep valleys. These less direct routes, though longer and slower, generally go to places where the air is clean and scenery is beautiful. In addition the driver may have a chance to get a fresh, clean view of the world.

  Questions 32 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.

  32.Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of American major highways?

  33.Why do major highways become very crowded during rush hour?

  34.What is the advantage in taking a secondary route?

  35.What can we infer from the passage?