略读(skimming),指的是快速浏览全文的阅读方法。略读的对象是文章的开始段、结束段、每段的段首句和结尾句。文章内容的概括性陈述一般都在这些位置。

  略读的目的是:(1)了解文章的主题;(2)对文章的结构获得一个整体概念;(3)对各部分的内容获得一个粗略的印象;(4)对文章主旨做出判断。

  对快速阅读而言,略读最重要的意义在于对各部分的内容获得一个粗略印象,以方便在寻读的迅速确定答案所在的部分或段落。

  ① 有小标题的文章

  解题技巧 对于有小标题的文章,把握开头或结尾部分就把握住了文章的主题与写作目的。小标题相当于段落的主题句,把握住小标题就把握住了文章的主要内容。这些小标题在寻读时也显得格外重要,从题干中的定位信息可以快速找到相关的小标题(模糊定位),再在小标题下的内容中查找就可以了(精确定位)。这对于提高作题速度非常有帮助。

  【真题示例1】

  ….5.Protect your references.

  If your resume contains a section with the names and contact information of your references,take it out.There’s no sense in safeguarding your information while sharing private contact information of your references..

  Q:To protect your references,you should not post online their _______

  【解析】name and contact information / private contact information。根据题干中的protect your references可以快速定位到小标题5下的内容。本段讲述的主要是是如何来保护自己的证明人。段中说的主要内容就是要把联系人的姓名和联系方式从网上拿下来

  【真题示例2】

  原文的几个小标题为: How Much Trash Is Generated;How Is Trash Disposed of ;What Is a Landfill;Proposing the landfill;Building the Landfill;What Happens to Trash in a Landfill;How Is a Landfill Operated

  Q:The passage gives a general description of the structure and use of a landfill.

  【解析】选Y。看文章的标题可知道全文主要描述的是垃圾填埋场的建设与使用。所以题干正确.

  ② 无小标题的文章

  解题技巧 对于没有小标题的文章,需要把握文章开头或结尾部分来把握文章的主题与写作目的。更重要的是浏览每段的段首和段尾,对每一段的主题和内容获得一个粗略的印象。建议考生在浏览时将本段的主题词用笔圈出。这些主题词将起到小标题的作用。

  【真题示例】

  ….Today,the interstate system links every major city in the U.S. and the U.S.with Canada and Mexico.Built with safety in mind,the highways have wide lanes and shoulders,dividing medians or barriers,long entry and exit lanes,curves engineered for safe turns,and limited access.The death rate on highways is half that of all other U.S.roads(0.86 deaths per 100 million passenger miles compared to 1.99 deaths per 100 million on all other roads)…

  Q: In spite of safety considerations ,the death rate on interstate highways is still higher than that of ther American roads.

  【解析】选N。本段讲的是告诉公路的安全问题,death rate是其中的一个关键词。根据题干中的关键词定位到这一段,再根据句中存在的比较关系再具体定位到段落的末尾处。原文说:“高速公路上的车祸死亡碧绿是其他路面上的一半”。所以题干说:“高速公路上的事故死亡率比其他路面上的高”是错误的。

  即讲即练

  In the UK it is estimated that work-related stress is responsible for six million days of sick leave a year,with stress being linked to many minor and major illnesses.

  For most people,work is a significant and meaningful part of life with the majority of us spending aroun 25% of our adult lives owrking. While work can provide us with purpose, satistaction,sell-esteem and spending power,the workplace can also be a setting of stress and worry.

  What is work-ralated stress?

  Everyone is under some pressure in the workplace.Some external pressures can be a postive factor, helping us to be more productive.Some people actually thrive under short-term added pressure, and our bodies are designed to meet these short-term demands.Hormones are released to prepare us for a “fight of flight” response to demanding situations. However,excessive and prolonged stress can produce a range of physical and emotional health problems which have come to be grouped as “work-related stress”.

  There is no single cause of work-ralated stress. While stress can be triggered by sudden, unexpected pressures, it is often the result of a combination of stressful factors which accumulate over time.Some people can become so used to the symptoms of excessive stress that it goes unnoticed to their detriment(危害).Most work-related stress is related to management of work, relationships at work,organizational set-up and whether you feel you have power and control in your work.

  The experience of stress is different for every person. Some people are affected mor than others, so what is stressful for ome person may not be stressful for another. It can depend on your personality type and on how you have learned to respond to pressure.

  It is impossible to escape pressure at work altogether, so it is important to learn how to manage stress. There are a number of ways in which you can reduce the negative impact of stress.

  Changes at work

  If work-related stress is affecting you, it is important to deal with the problem as soon as possible. One of the most important factors in reducing stress levels is managing time effectively. Prioritize tasks. Completing one task before going on to the next will help you to feel more in control of work.

  Make time to relax at work by stretching and breathing deeply. This will help you to keep focused and prevent tired muscles. Simply ensuring you get outside for a walk during your lunch break can be helpful.

  It is helpful to identify which situations stress you most. Practice how you could behave differently in tricky situations. Perhaps you need to be more assertive, or you need to learn to “take a step back” in tricky situations. It can seem hard to confront the causes of workplace stress and to ask for help. But sometimes, support and advice from your line manager or human resources department is necessary to help you deal with difficulties at work.

  If you find talking about your concerns difficult, it may help to make notes to bring along to the work interview with you.Make these clear and specific. Try to remember that it is in everybody’s interest that the workplace is as stress-free as possible.

  寻读(scanning),是指以问题为线索、带着问题去寻找某一特定信息的阅读。

  对于四六级考试的快速阅读来说,寻读就是在读过文章后面的题后,以题干中的某些词为线索,到原文中去寻找出处的过程。由于快速阅读对于内容的理解能力要求并不高,所以寻读技能的高低直接影响着考生作题时间的长短。

  所以,以什么词为定位词(或线索词)到原文中去查找是很关键的。

  ①题目顺序基本与行文顺序一致

  解题技巧:一般情况下,快速阅读的题目顺序与原文的行文顺序是保持一致的,也就是说,下一道题的出处一般位于前一道题出处后面。即使是存在反常情况的07年6月四级考试中(第6题的出处在原文最后一段,第10题的出处在原文第一段),其总体的试题顺序仍然是与文章的行文顺序一致的。把握题目顺序与行文顺序一致的基本规律,将节省我们的寻读时间。

  ②数字、年代

  解题技巧1 数字和年代在文章中通常以阿拉伯叔祖的形式出现,在周围都是英文字母的背景中就显得比较突出。因此,如果考题中含有数字,往往可以用来快速定位题目的出处。

  解题技巧2 数字和年代在文章中通常以阿拉伯数字的形式出现,但题干中可能对数字的形式有一定改动,如在数字的精确性和模糊性上变化。这时需要主义从逻辑关系上正确理解数字之间的包含与被包含关系。

  ③第一次出现的人名、地名等专有名词

  解题技巧 专有名词以大写字母开头,在文章中显得比较突出,容易寻找。但是如果通篇都是讲与这个专有名词有关的事情时,这个专有名词有可能在全文中多次出现,而题目中也多次出现,这时就不建议用它来定位题目出处,而应该使用其他的定位词。

  【真题 1】

  Early in the 20th century,most of the streets and roads in the U.S. were made of dirt,birck, and cedar wood blocks. Built for horse, carriage, and foot traffic, they were usually poorly cared for and too narrow to accommodate(容纳) automobiles.

  With the increase in auto production, private turnpike(收费公路)companies under loacl authorities began to spring up,and by 1921 there were 387,000 miles of paved orads. Many were built using specifications of 19th century Scottish engineers Thomas Telford and John Mac Adam (for whom the macadam surface is named), whose specifications stressed the importance of adequate drainage. Beyond that, there were no national standards for size, weight restrictions, or commercial signs. During World War Ⅰ, roads throughout the country were nearly destroyed by the weight of trucks. When General Eisenhower returned from Germany in 1919, after serving in the U.S. Army’s first transcontinental motor convoy(车队), he noted: “ The old convoy had started me thinking about good, two-lane highways, but Germany’s Autobahn or motorway had made me see the wisdom of broader ribbons across the land.”…

  Q1: National standards for paved roads were in place by 1921

  Q2: General Eisenhower felt that the broad German motorways made more sense than the two-lane highways of America

  【真题 2】

  …The interstate highway system was finally launched in 1956 and has been hailed as one of the greatest public works projects of the century. To build its 44,000-mile web of highways, bridge, and tunnels, hundreds of unique engineering designs and solutions had to be worked out. Consider the many geographic features of the country: mountains, steep grades, wetlands, rivers, desserts, and plains….

  Q: It was in the 1950s that American government finally took action to build a national high way system.

  【真题示例 1】答案解析

  【解析1】根据1921可以快速、准确地定位到文章的第2段的开始。第一句说1921年时已经有38万多公里的公路铺设,许多使用的是两位19世纪苏格兰工程师的技术参数。后面一句提到当时还没有国家标准(here were no national standards).所以题干表述错误,选N

  【解析2】根据General Eisenhower或者German定位在文章第2段的后半部分。General Eisenhower先是夸耀了 two-lane highways的好,一个but之后指出德国高速公路的wisdom。说明General Eisenhower更欣赏德国的告诉公路。题干表述正确,选Y

  【真题示例 2】答案解析

  【解析】根据1950s可以快速准确地定位到本段第一句中。该句说,1956年时洲际告诉公路开始建设。题干中的1950s表示20世纪50年代,包含着1956年。题干说1950s开建是正确的。选Y

  文章分类--社会:生活百态。830词。

  OGAMA,Japan,this mountain village on the West Coast, withere(枯萎) to eight aging residents, concluded recently that it could no longer go on. So, after months of anguish, the villagers settled on a drastic solution;:selling all of Ogama to an industrial waste company from Tokyo, which will trun it into a landfill.

  With the proceeds, the villagers plan to pack up everything, including their family graves, and move in the next few years to yet uncertain destinations, most likely becoming the first community in Japan to cease to exist voluntarily.

  “I’m sure we’re the first ones to have made such a proposal,”, said Kazuo Miyasaka,64,thevillage leader.”It’s because there’s no future for us here, zero.”

  On a hill overlooking a field of overgrown bushes, surrounded by the sounds of a running stream and a bush warbler (鸣鸟), Miyasaka pointed below with his right index finger. “I never imagined it would come to this,”he said. “I mean,those all used to be rice fields.”

  Ogama’s decision, though extreme, points to a larger problem beetting Japan,which has one of the world’s fastest-graying societies and whose population began declinlng last year for the first time. As rural Japan becomes increasingly depopulated, many villages and hamlets (小村) like Ogama, along with their traditions and histories, risk vanishing.

  Japan is dotted with so many such communities that academics have coined a term ----“villages that have reached their limits”--- to describe those with populations that are more than half elderly. Out of 140 villages in Monzen, the municipality that includes Ogama, 40 percent have fewer than 10 households, inhabited mostly by ghe elderly.

  Rural Japan has never recovered from its long recession, unlike urban areas. Many of its commercial main streets have been reduced to what the Japanese call “shuttered streets,” and few rural areas have found economic alternatives to the huge public works projects that the long-governing Liberal Democratic Party kept doling out.

  During his five years in office, Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi has reduced public works spending that yielded money and jobs to local construction companies.

  Koizumi cut subsidies and tax redistribution to local governments, instead giving them the power to collect taxes directly But rural officials argue that with a decreasing population and few businesses, there are few taxes to collect.

  In keeping with a nationwide movement to combine financially squeezed municipalities, Monzen merged with nearby Wajima City in February. In 2000, revenue from the national government to the two municipalities totaled $ 114 million, accounting for 50 percent of their overall revenue; in 2005, money from the capital fell to $ 90 million, or 44 percent of revenue.

  Fumiaki Kaji, mayor of the merged municipality, said recent changes amounted to a “ simple logic of telling the countryside that it should die.”

  Ogama lies in a valley in a mountain facing the sea, reached by a single-lane road that winds its way through a deep green forest where foxes and raccoon dogs are spotted regularly. The road ends here.

  Bunzo Mizushiri, 81 ,a historian in Wajima, said Ogama (whose name means “Big Pot”) was the place where monks cleansed themselves before going up Takatusme, a sacred mountain.

  After World War Ⅱ ,there were about 30 households here, each with eight or nine people. Today , three couples live in one corner of the village, and two women live alone in another corner. A small hill rises in the center, atop which stands a Shinto(日本的神道教) shrine whose gate was partly felled by an earthquake years ago.

  Small streams flow from the surrounding mountains, keeping the ground here moist and covered with patches of moss. The expanding forest has begun reclaiming once cultivated land, hiding the ruins of abandoned housed, and blocking the sunlight.

  “Our house is still standing, thankfully,” said Harue Miyasaka,the village leader’s wife and,at 61, Ogama’s youngest inhabitant. “But when you look at the houses collapsing one after another, you understand what’s ahead for your own house.”

  “We’re at a dead-end here,” she said in front of her house, where the single-lane road reached its end. “Our children haven’t come back, so there’s no further growth. We’ll just keep getting older.”

  Her husband first proposed the idea. After retiring as a seaman two decades ago and setting up a roof-waterproofing business, Kazuo Miyasaka said he foresaw Ogama’s shrinking future. So about 15 years ago, he began pursuing several possibilities, including turning the area into a golf course. None of the ideas went anywhere until he approached Takeei,. a Tokyo industrial waste company, a couple of years ago. Takeei was interested.

  Miyasaka summoned the entire village — he became its permanent chief three years ago after Ogama’s two other men could no longer take turns as leader because of poor health — and told his neighbors about the offer.

  “If young people came back, these villages could go on,” Kenichi Taniguchi,76, said. “But that’s not happening. They’re all dying out.”

  1. No community in Japan choose to stop existence in their living place before Ogama.

  2. With the decrease of rural population in Japan, many villages and their cultures are likely to disappear.

  3. Both the rural areas and urban areas in Japan haven’t recovered from the long recession.

  4. Rural officials say they can collect few taxes because of the backward economic development.

  5. Many municipalities combined to solve the financial problem and it worked.

  6. According to Bunzo Mizushiri, there is no monk who cleanses himself before climbing Takatsume now.

  7. The forest expands to the area where used to be cultivated land and the ruins of abandoned houses in Ogama.

  8. Harue Miyasaka Knew that her house would also ________.

  9. Miyasaka proposed to build _______ in Ogama, which attracted Takeei’s interst.

  10.Only if ________, can the villages that have reached their limits survive, according to Kenichi Taniguchi.

  ④ 事物的性质特征或比较关系

  解题技巧:如果题干要求确定某个事物的性质、程度、范围或比较关系,那么就可以借助题干中的形容词、副词或其比较级、最高级等比较词来定位题目出处。然后对比原文与题干的陈述,最终确定题干是否正确。

  ⑤ 题干中不同于其他题的新信息

  解题技巧:每道题的题干中都含有与其他题不同的新信息。这些表示新信息的名词或动词、甚至是特殊的标点符号也可以成为线索词。

  ….The numbers associated with identity theft are beginning to add up fast these days. A recent General Accounting Office report estimates that as many as 750,000 Americans are victims of identity theft every. And that number may be slow, as many people choose not to report the crime even if they know they have been victimized.

  ….According to the FBI,identity theft is the number one fraud committed on the Internet. So how do job seekers protect themselves while continuing to circulate their resumes online? The key to a successful online job search is learning to manage the risks. Here are some tips for staying while conducting a job search on the Internet. …

  Q: Identity theft is a minor offence and its harm has been somewhat overestimated.

  …The interstate system has been an essential element of the nation’s economic growth in terms of shipping and job creation: more than 75 percent of the nation’s freight deliveries arrive by stuck; and most products that arrive by rail or air use interstates for the last leg of the journey by vehicle. Not only has the highway system affected the American economy by providing shipping routes,it has led to the growth of spin-off industries like service stations, motels,restaurants, and shopping centers. It has allowed the relocation of manufacturing plants and other industries from urban areas to rural..

  Q:Trucks using the interstate highways deliver more than__________.

  Establish an email address for your search

  ….Using an email address specifically for your job serch also eliminates the possibility that you well receive unwelcome emails in your primary mailbox. When naming your new email address, be sure that it doesn’t contain references to your name or other information that will give away your identity. The best solution is an email address that is relevant to the job you are seeking such as Salesmgr2004@provider.com...

  Q:Using a special email address in the job search can help prevent you from receiving ______

  【解析】原文对“身份盗用”这种犯罪行为的描述是:案发率快速增长;许多人还没有报案;FBI认定其在网上犯罪形式中发案率最高(the number on fraud)。所以题干说“身份盗用”这种犯罪行为是一种小的冒犯行为,危害被低估都与原文的描述相反。题干表述错误,选N

  【解析】本题的主题是卡车。因此其可作为线索词。定位在本段第一句话。答案是 75 percent of the nation’s freight.

  【解析】receive缺少宾语,填名词。再根据线索词using a special email address定位原文信息。题干中的can help prevent you from receiving和原文中的eliminates the possibility that you will receive是同义表达,因此unwelcome emails为答案。


08年四级英语考试巅峰阅读培训: http://insuns.com/article/17566-1.html