1.What is Translation?
  Translation and Interpretation
  Translation standards:Faithfulness,Expressiveness and Elegance
  要求:中文与英文均无语法错误,无错别字,无拼写错误。终于原文结构、实事和内容,翻译时要注意overall understanding在整体全篇的理解的基础上再翻译,意思才能表达准确。
  2.Passage Translation
  1) A merchant ,whose daughter had married a man with whom it proved she could not get on very well, was surprised some weeks later to see the young lady return home with all her belongings.
  The old man listened very attentively to her story, and then went to his desk and wrote a note to his son-in-law, which he gave to his daughter assuring her that her husband would receive her kindly after this.
  The pair, on reading the letter, found in it the following notice:“Dear sir,goods that have been selected of one's own free will at my establishment are not to be taken back.” The young couple laughed heartily, and were reconciled.
  2) Until the nineteenth century,the Asians were relatively successful in holding the European traders and missionaries at bay.
  hold sb. at bay=keep sb. far away,  missionary 传教士
  The Chinese court assumed an aloof and patronizing attitude toward these Westerners, keeping them confined(limited) to the southern port cities of Macao and later, Canton.
  Canton 广州,  patronizing 傲慢的,惠顾的, aloof 远离的,冷淡的
  China's rulers supremely confident in their own tradition, professed little need of Western goods and ideas.
  supreme 最大的,最高的,最重要的,profess 声称;自称
  Thus responding to a British request for diplomatic representation in Beijing in 1816, the Chinese Emperor avowed that “my dynasty attached no value to products from abroad: your nation's strange wares do not appeal to me in the least,nor do they interest me,”
中级口译翻译学习(一): http://insuns.com/article/174-1.html