前 言:

教习过好几门课程,深感写作这一课是最难教的,“危乎高哉!‘写作’之难难于上青天。……一夫当关,万夫莫开。”学生学习英语写作多时,大多不能迥脱蹊径之外,工而入逸者更是寥寥。于是我悲观起来,认定“文不可以‘教’而能”。虽说文字和技法可以也应当教一些,俾学生邯郸学步,渐次入门,但就本质特征而论,写作远不只是一个章法和技巧的问题,而是“气之所行”,是皮相之下许多深层主观因素的综合,是一个厚积薄发的养成过程。这些主观因素,在我看来,体现在国内的英语写作考试当中只局限于素心烂读的积累。

Reading makes a full man.这是英国学者的传世之言,我们的祖先说“读书破万卷,下笔如有神”。我们赞叹一篇文章,往往是因为我们被文章中的语言所吸引、所征服:语汇丰富、句式整齐、语言或精练或华丽,句式安排熟练自如,自然流畅;而者只能来自于 reading。但是我们已没有那么多的时间去“读”了,于是乎,语言的总结就变得极其必要!

要归纳记叙文中漂亮、地道的语言是困难的,但是要归纳论说文这个各种英语考试的作文类型中的语言不是不可能的。论说文是由开头、结尾、启转、分析、举例、比较等部分所组成的,其中都有些固定而漂亮的句型来表达。由于这些句型都是地道的英语,是经过千锤百炼,且能表达论说文写作中的不同意思,若能把以论说文为主的当代英语essays中的这些句型摘录归纳成类,供读者参考,无疑是能有助于提高英语写作的语言水平。

模仿和学用漂亮和地道的英语表达法或句型并不是可耻的事。地道的英语不应是你用学过的词汇和语法规则按某个意思苦苦思索造出来的,地道的英语应是你把英美人对这个意思的习惯说法用到你自己的文章上来的。该讲义收集了论说文常用的一些句型,与六级考试的一些文章结构模式;希望同学们能以此为依据,Practice makes perfect,达到熟能生巧的境界,从而在六级考试作文部分获得理想的分数!

写作原则
内容简单化
结构模式化(主题句-分论点-总结)
语言要包装
错误要回避
万能理由 (Omnipotence):
1、方便:convenient/convenience
2、效率:efficient/efficiently/efficiency
3、节省和浪费:save time/money/space; economical, thrift
waste time/money/space; costly, lavish
4:人的心理健康:independent, cooperative, competitive,
considerate, confident, creative, sociable, perseverance; selfish, isolated, conservative
5、人的身体健康:health, disease, strong, strength, energetic
6、娱乐:colorful, pleasure, joy, recreation, entertainment, relax tired, boring, lonely
7、环境:environment, pollute, poisonous, dirty
8、安全和危险:safe, danger, risk
9:经验:experience, social experience, enter the society
10、人际:humane, fair, unfair, help, assist, freedom, freely
基本表达(Basic Elements of English Writing):
越来越:be increasingly adj., be on the rise, the growing number of
人们认为:it is generally/widely believed/held/agreed that
许多问题:a host of/a number of problems
引起人们注意:claim call/attract general/public/world attention to sth.
意识到:there is a growing awareness/realization of/that, awaken sb. to the fact/danger
适应新的形势/变化:adapt/adjust/accommodate oneself to new environment/change
接触各种思想/经历:be exposed to new ideas/experiences/problems
接触社会:come into frequent/close contact with the world/society
获得成功:achieve/accomplish success
提出观点/建议:advance / put forward / come up with the arguments/ideas/suggestions
作出努力:make tremendous/persistent/sustained effort to do sth., take great pains to do(with work/study)
影响学习/工作:interfere with studies/work
产生影响:have/exert a profound influence on life/personality, have a dramatic/undesirable effect on
较好地驾驭生活:be a better pilot of one's life
剥夺机会/权力:deprive oneself of the chance/right/opportunity
取代就的方式:substitute for/take the place of the old way
采取措施:take effective steps/measures to
控制我们的环境:take/gain increasing control over our own environment
躲避危险/挑战:shy/run away from the dangers/challenge
满足要求:meet/satisfy/accommodate the demand of
补偿损失:compensate for/make up for the loss/damage
解释某现象:account for/explain the phenomenon
对……很好的了解:have a better understanding/appreciation of, have a new perspective on. provide/gain an insight into
把某因素考虑进去:take sth. Into account(consideration), give much thought to
品位人生/自由/青春:savor the life/freedom/youth
培养对……的信心:develop/foster one's interest/confidence in
经历变化/困难/艰险:undergo/experience great changes/hardships/experience
表现出自信心等:project one's confidence/feeling/image
生活充满不公正的地方:life is full of minor irritation/injustice
追求学习/职业:pursue one's academic interest/professional career
学习知识/技术:pursue/acquire knowledge/technology/skill
被看作学习的……榜样:be held up as a good example
交流经验/知识:share experience/ideas/problems/knowledge
发挥/起到重要作用:play an (important/active/great) role/part
逃学/缺课:skip school/a class/a meeting/a lecture
知识/经验丰富:rich in knowledge/experience
确立/追求目标:set/pursue a goal/higher standard
到达目标:achieve/accomplish/stain the goal/aim/objective
克服困难:overcome obstacles/difficulty
面临危险/困难:be confronted/faced with/in the face of danger/difficulty
阻碍了成功:stand in the way of success, be an obstacle/barrier to success/growth
阻碍了发展:hamper/impede/stunt the development of
持传统的看法:hold conventional wisdom
发表看法:voice/express one's opinion
持相反/合理的观点:take the opposite/fresh view
揭穿某种一贯的说法:shatter the myth of
求得帮助:enlist one's support/help
缩小差别:bridge/narrow/fill the gap/gulf (between city and country)
把成功/错误归咎于:attribute/own the success/failure to
对……重要:be indispensable/important/vital to
施加压力:put/exert a academic pressure on
重视:assign/attach much importance/significance to
强调:place/put much emphasis/stress/value on
把注意力集中在:focus/concentrate one's attention/efforts/thoughts upon
提供机会/信息:provide/offer/furnish an opportunity/information for sb.
抓住机会:grab/seize/take the opportunity
得到机会:enjoy/gain access to a opportunity/information
有可能:there is (little/much) possibility/likelihood that, chances/the odds are that
展开竞争:compete against/with sb. for the prize/position/control/the mastery of
开展运动:conduct(carryon/undertake/initiate/launch/wage) a (vigorous/nation-wide/publicity/advertising) campaign (for/against)
对我很有/没有什么意义:make much/little sense to me
带来无穷的幸福/满足:be a source of happiness satisfaction/contentment/pride/complaint
献身于:devote/dedicate/commit oneself to a cause/career
大不(没什么)两样:make much(little/no) difference
真正重要的是:what really matters/accounts is …
改变生活旅程:change/alter the course of life
建立在大量的学习/实践上:built on tremendous amount of study/practice
进行调查/执行任务:conduct/carry out an study/task/experiment
辞去工作/学习:leave/quit one's job/work/school
参加考试/竞赛等:enter (for) the examination/contest, race
参加活动/讨论:take part/participate/be engaged in sports/activities/discussion
影响思想/态度/事件的形成:shape one's thinking/attitude
进入大学/社会/家庭/劳力市场/职业:enter a school/college/society/the work force/professionals
实现自己的理想/愿望:realize/fulfill/achieve one's dream(hops/wish/desire)
减轻压力/紧张:reduce/alleviate/relieve the stress/pressure/tension
提高社会地位:enhance/improve/upgrade social status/position/standing rise to the position of leadership
提高技术/能力:sharpen (increase/improve/enhance/boost) one's skill/ability
加快/促进发展:accelerate/facilitate/advance/enhance/boost the development of
随着生活节奏的加快:with the quickening pace/rhythm/tempo of modern life/society
开阔眼界/兴趣:broaden one's interest/outlook, expand(broaden/enlarge) one's mental horizons
有助于了解/发展/宣传/解决:contribute much/little/greatly/to a better understanding of/the popularity of/the growth of/the solution of
有助于解决问题:go a long way to(towards) solving the problem
迷恋名利/分数:be obsessed/preoccupied with grades/fame/fortune
把时间花/浪费在:spend/waste time doing sth., put in hours doing sth.
利用机会/技术:make (full/better) use of/take advantage of opportunity/time, tap/harness technology potential/skills/talent
把知识/经验运用到…:apply/put the theory/knowledge/experience… to practice/daily life/good use
取得进步:make much progress/strides/gains in
充分发挥潜力/能力:develop one's ability/potential to the full, give full play to one's ability
充满激情/渴望:have a burning desire/a great passion for
新东方英语四级写作笔记1(非常完整版): http://insuns.com/article/16403-1.html