非谓语动词等语法项目的测试特点和应对策略。
一、 非谓语动词

近几年的语法测试中非谓语动词约占31.1%,平均每年近5道题,可谓是语法项目考查的重点,那么非谓语动词的考查都有哪些特点,解答时又应注意些什么呢?下面我和大家就一起来分析一下:

1、非谓语动词考查特点

1) 谓语动词与非谓语动词的判断
对谓语动词与非谓语动词区别的考查主要集中在独立主格结构,如:
All things ___ because of the snowstorm, many passengers could do nothing buttake the train.(1999.1)
A. had been canceled B. have been canceled
C. were canceled D. having been canceled
四个选项中有三个是谓语动词,只有D是非谓语动词,只要同学们能判断出这里是非谓语动词做状语,则不用考虑时态的问题,答案自明。

2) 谓语动词后不定式与动名词的选择
谓语动词后接不定式还是接动名词也是四级语法测试中的一个题眼。如:
① I don't mind ____ the decision as long as it is not too late.
(2000.1)
A. you to delay making B. your delaying making
C. your delaying to make D. you delay to make
② Had I remembered ____ the windows, the thief would not have
got in.(1996.1)
A. to close B. closing
C. to have closed D. having closed
③ Your hair wants ______ . You'd better have it done tomorrow.
A. cut B. to cut C. cutting D. being cut(1997.6)
这类题涉及三个方面:
谓语动词后应该接不定式还是动名词?
即可接不定式又可接动名词时,结构和意思上有何差别?
不定式与动名词用主动形式还是用被动形式?

3) 做定语的非谓语动词的选择
从近几年的考查情况来看,对做定语的非谓语动词的考查有两种情况:
(1)对一般概念的考查,而不是固定结构中的非谓语动词做定语。如:
① The project ____ by the end of 2000, will expand the city's
telephone network to cover 1,000,000 users.(1999.6)
A. accomplished B. being accomplished
C. to be accomplished D. having been accomplished
② If I correct someone, I will do it with so much good humor
and self-restraint as if I were the one ______.(1996.6)
A. to correct B. correcting
C. having been corrected D. being corrected
同学们只要掌握非谓语动词做定语的一般的规律,就可以判断①题答案为C,②题答案为D。
(2)对固定结构的考查,如:
① The professor could hardly find sufficient grounds _____ his
arguments in favor of the new theory.(2000.6)
A. to be based on B. to base on
C. which to base on D. on which to base
② The pressure _____ causes Americans to be energetic, but it
also puts them under a constant emotional strain.
A. to compete B. competing
C. to be competed D. having competed
①题为不定式做定语的固定形式,答案为D,②题为某些特定名词的定语结构,答案为A。在英语中有些名词,如动词变来的名词,形容词变来的名词,以及means,way, time, moment, reason等要求其后用不定式做定语,不定式没有体的变化。

4) 做状语的非谓语动词的选择
做状语的非谓语动词主要考查其各种形式的选择,如:
① ______ the earth to be flat, many feared that Columbus would
fall off the edge of the earth.(1996.6)
A. Having believed B. Believing
C. Believed D. Being Believed
② _______ a teacher in a university, it is necessary to have at
least a master's degree.(1995.1)
A. To become B. Become C. One becomes D. On becoming
③ Realizing that he hadn't enough money and ____ to borrow from
his father, he decided to sell his watch.(1995.1)
A. not wanted B. no to want C. not wanting D. wanting not
④ ___ it or not, his discovery has created a stir in scientific
circles.(1997.1)
A. Believe B. To believe C. Believing D. Believed
从以上各题来看,考查的侧重点有:
(1)状语类别的判断
不同的状语对非谓语动词的要求不同,目的状语要求用不定式,如②。
(2)非谓语动词与句子属于之间的逻辑关系
根据主谓关系或动宾关系的不同来确定用现在分词还是用过去分词。
(3)非谓语动词的否定形式
not否定非谓语动词时置于非谓语动词之前,如③。
(4) 独立成分
有些非谓语动词的使用不受与句子主语关系的限制,称为独立成分,这类成 分只记忆即可。如:generally speaking, judging from..., to tell the truth..., 等。

5) 做补足语的非谓语动词的选择
做宾语补足语的非谓语动词受谓语动词的限制,不同动词后的宾语补足语形式要求不同。近几年对各类宾补都有考查。如:
① They are going to have the service man ____ an electric fan in the officetomorrow.(1998.1)
A. install B. to install C. to be installed D. installed
② After a few rounds of talks, both sides regarded the territory
dispute ______.(1998.6)
A. being settled B. to be settled
C. had settled D. as settled
③ You will see this product ____ wherever you go.(2000.6)
A. to be advertised B. advertised
C. advertise D. advertising
④ His remarks left me _____ about his real purpose.(1999.6)
A. wondered B. wonder C. to wonder D. wondering
⑤ When I caught him ______ me I stopped buying things there and started dealingwith another shop.(1997.1)
A. cheating B. cheat C. to cheat D. to be cheating
⑥ The sale usually takes place outside the house, with the
audience _____ on benches, chairs or boxes.(2000.1)
A. having seated B. seating C. seated D. having been seated

考查涉及到
感官动词后的宾语补足语,如③。
have, make, let, leave等特殊单词后的宾语补足语。
regard类后面的宾语补足语
with独立分句后面的
常用动词后面的宾语补足语。

6) 做表语的非谓语动词的选择
表语的考查多侧重于分词做表语形式的选择,很少有动名词的用法的考查,虽然选项中有不定式作为干扰项,只要能看出是做表语的也就不用考虑。如:
① The house was very quiet, ____ as it was on the side of the
mountain.(1999.6)
A. isolated B. isolating
C. being isolated D. having been isolated
② These surveys indicate that many crimes go _____ by the police,mainly becausenot all victims report them.(2000.6)
A. unrecorded B. to be unrecorded
C. unrecording D. to have been unrecorded
分词做表语可以做系动词be的表语,也可以做其它系动词的表语,如go, feel,seem, look, remain等等。这些系动词后非谓语动词的饿用法规则是相同的。

7) to作为介词与作为不定式符号的选择

to可以是介词,也可以用来引导不定式,四级考试中对种类用法的考查也比较多。如:
① I have no objection _______ your story again.(2000.6)
A. to hear B. to hearing
C. to having heard D. to have heard
② The traditional approach ____ with complex problems is to break down intosmaller, more easily managed problems.(1996.6)
A. to dealing B. in dealing C. dealing D. to deal
③ The man in the corner confessed to _____ a lie to the manager
of the company.(1997.6)
A. have told B. be told C. being told D. having told
这类考题的考查方式有两种,一是四个选项中有两个相对的选项to do something 和 to doing something,这时考查的自然是to的性质;另一种是to在题干中,如③。

8) 分词前连词的使用

分词前连词的使用是为了使分词的作用更加明了,使考生更加准确地理解试题。考查有两种情况
(1)根据连词选择适当的分词形式
Michael used to look hurt and surprised when ______.(1995.1)
A. scolding B. to scold C. having scolded D. scolded
when的使用说明非谓语动词做时间状语,答案不可能是B,从scold与句子主语间的逻辑关系来看,应该是动宾关系,答案应该是D。
(2)根据状语的功能选择不同的连词
Careful surveys have indicated that as many as 50 percent of
patient do not take drugs ___ directed.(1996.1)
A. like B. so C. which D. as
由上下文的意思可以看出,分词所做的是方式状语,连词应该是as。

9) 非谓语动词的体

非谓语动词中分词的体有完成体和进行体,即having done, having been done和being done,完成体只用于做状语的场合,而进行体可以用于做定语和做补足语。
动名词的体也有having done, having been done和 being done的结构主要用于做主语和宾语的场合。
不定式的体有to be doing 和to have done,主要用于pretend, happen, seem, appear, be said to等结构中。如:
① The man in the corner confessed to _____ a lie to the manager
of the company.(1997.6)
A. have told B. be told C. being told D. having told
having told在句中做介词宾语,表示动作发生在谓语动词之前。
② I'd rather read than watch television; the programs seem ____
all the time.(1997.1)
A. to get worse B. to be getting worse
C. to have got worse D. getting worse
从all the time的使用可以推断get worse是一个渐变过程,所以用不定式的进行体。
③ The speech _____ a lively discussion started.(1995.1)
A. being delivered B. was delivered
C. be delivered D. having been delivered
该结构属于独立主格结构做时间状语,状语分词所表示的动作发生在谓语动词之前,所以应该用完成体,答案为D。
英语四级英语语法精解(一): http://insuns.com/article/15385-1.html