Passage Three

  Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.

  “Humans should not try to avoid stress any more than they would shun food, love or exercise.” said Dr. Hans Selye, the first physician to document the effects of stress on the body. While here’s no question that continuous stress is harmful, several studies suggest that challenging situations in which you’re able to rise to the occasion can be good for you.

  In a 2001 study of 158 hospital nurses, those who faced considerable work demands but coped with the challenge were more likely to say they were in good health than those who felt they couldn’t get the job done.

  Stress that you can manage may also boost immune(免疫的) function. In a study at the Academic Center for Dentistry in Amsterdam, researchers put volunteers through two stressful experiences. In the first, a timed task that required memorizing a list followed by a short test, subjects believed they had control over the outcome. In the second, they weren’t in control: They had to sit through a gory(血淋淋的) video on surgical procedures. Those who did go on the memory test had an increase in levels of immunoglobulin A, an antibody that's the body’s first line of defense against germs. The video-watchers experienced a downturn in the antibody.

  Stress prompts the body to produce certain stress hormones. In short bursts these hormones have a positive effect, including improved memory function. “They can help nerve cells handle information and put it into storage,” says Dr. Bruce McEwen of Rockefeller University in New York. But in the long run these hormones can have a harmful effect on the body and brain.

  “Sustained stress is not good for you,” says Richard Morimoto, a researcher at Northwestern University in Illinois studying the effects of stress on longevity(长寿), “It’s the occasional burst of stress or brief exposure to stress that could be protective.”

  原文出处

  Healing Power of Stress

  Some of those crazy, time-crunched days at the office may actually be good for you

  “Man SHOULD NOT try to avoid stress than he would shun food, love or exercise," said Dr. HansSelye, the first physician to document the effects of stress on the body. While there's no question that prolonged stress is harmful, several studies suggest that challenging situations in which you’re able to rise to the occasion can be good for you.

  In a 2001 study of 158 hospital nurses, those who faced considerable work demands but coped with the challenge were more likely to say they were in good health than those who felt they couldn’t get the job done.

  Stress that you can manage may also boost immune function. In a study at the Academic Centre for Dentistry in Amsterdam, researchers put volunteers through two stressful experiences. In the first, a timed task that required memorizing a list followed by a short test, subjects believed they had control over the outcome. In the second, they weren't in control: They had to sit through a gory video on surgical procedures. Those who did go on the memory test had an increase in levels of immunoglobulin A, an antibody that's the body’s first line of defense against germs. The video-watchers experienced a downturn in the antibody.

  Stress prompts the body to produce adrenaline and the stress hormonecortisol. In short bursts these hormones have a positive effect, including improved memory function. "Cortisol and adrenaline enhances how nerve cells handle information and put it into storage," says Bruce McEwen, head of the laboratory of neuron endocrinology at Rockefeller University. But over the long term these hormones can have a corrosive effect on the body and brain.

  "Sustained stress is not good for you," says Richard Morimoto, a researcher at Northwestern University studying the effects of stress on longevity. "It's the occasional burst of stress or brief exposure to environmental or physiological stress that could be protective."

  31. The passage is mainly about ______

  {A) the benefits of manageable stress}

  B) how to avoid stressful situations

  C) how to cope with stress effectively

  D) the effects of stress hormones on memory

  32. The word “shun” (Line 1, Para.1) most probably means________.

  A) cut down on

  {B) stay away from}

  C) run out of

  D) put up with

  33. We can conclude from the study of the 158 nurses in 2001 that _______

  A) people under stress tend to have a poor memory

  B) people who can’t get their job done experience more stress

  {C) doing challenging work may be good for one’s health}

  D) stress will weaken the body’s defense against germs

  34. In the experiment described in Paragraph 3, the video-watchers experienced a downturn in the antibody because ______.

  A) the video was not enjoyable at all

  {B) the outcome was beyond their control }

  C) they knew little about surgical procedures

  D) they felt no pressure while watching the video

  35. Dr. Bruce McEwen of Rockefeller University believes that ______.

  A) a person’s memory is determined by the level of hormones in his body

  B) stress hormones have lasting positive effects on the brain

  {C) short bursts of stress hormones enhance memory function}

  D) a person’s memory improves with continued experience of stress.

  Passage Four

  Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage.

  If you want to teach your children how to say sorry, you must be good at saying it yourself, especially to your own children. But how you say it can be quite tricky.

  If you say to your children “I’m sorry I got angry with you, but …” what follows that “but” can render the apology ineffective: “I had a bad day” or “your noise was giving me a headache” leaves the person who has been injured feeling that he should be apologizing for his bad behavior in expecting an apology.

  Another method by which people appear to apologize without actually doing so is to say “I’m sorry you’re upset”; this suggests that you are somehow at fault for allowing yourself to get upset by what the other person has done.

  Then there is the general, all covering apology, which avoids the necessity of identifying a specific act that was particularly hurtful or insulting, and which the person who is apologizing should promise never to do again. Saying “I’m useless as a parent” does not commit a person to any specific improvement.

  These pseudo-apologies are used by people who believe saying sorry shows weakness. Parents who wish to teach their children to apologize should see it as a sign of strength, and therefore not resort to these pseudo-apologies.

  But even when presented with examples of genuine contrition(痛悔), children still need help to become aware of the complexities of saying sorry. A three-year-old might need help in understanding that other children feel pain just as he does, and that hitting a playmate over the head with a heavy toy requires an apology. A six-year-old might need reminding that spoiling other children’s expectations can require an apology. A 12-year-old might need to be shown that raiding the biscuit tin without asking permission is acceptable, but that borrowing a parent’s clothes without permission is not.

  36. If a mother adds “but” to an apology, ________.

  A) she doesn’t feel that she should have apologized.

  B) she does not realize that the child has been hurt

  C) the child may find the apology easier to accept

  {D) the child may feel that he owes her an apology}

  37. According to the author, saying “I’m sorry you’re upset” most probably means “_______”.

  A) You have good reason to get upset

  {B) I’m aware you’re upset, but I’m not to blame}

  C) I apologize for hurting your feelings

  D) I’m at fault for making you upset

  38. It is not advisable to use the general, all-covering apology because ______.

  A) it gets one into the habit of making empty promises

  B) it may make the other person feel guilty

  {C) it is vague and ineffective}

  D) it is hurtful and insulting

  39. We learn from the last paragraph that in teaching children to say sorry ______.

  A) the complexities involved should be ignored

  {B) their ages should be taken into account}

  C) parents need to set them a good example

  D) parents should be patient and tolerant

  40. It can be inferred from the passage that apologizing properly is _________.

  A) a social issue calling for immediate attention

  B) not necessary among family members

  C) a sign of social progress

  {D) not as simple as it seems }

  Part III Vocabulary (20 minutes)

  Directions: There are 30 incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Choose the ONE answer that best completes the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.

  41. Some people believe that since oil is scarce, the ____ of the motor industry is uncertain.

  A) terminal B) benefit {C) fate }D) estimate

  42. To speed up the ______ of letters, the Post Office introduced automatic sorting.

  A) treatment{ B) delivery} C) transmission D) departure

  43. These overseas students show great ______ for learning a new language.

  {A) enthusiasm }B) authority C) convention D) faith

  44. The defense lawyer was questioning the old man who was one of the ______ of the murder committed last month.

  A) observers {B) witnesses} C) audiences D) viewers

  45. Politically these nations tend to be ______, with very high birth rates but poor education and very low levels of literacy.

  {A) unstable} B) reluctant C) rational D) unsteady

  46. The chairman was blamed for letting his secretary ________too much work last week.

  A) take to B) take out C) take away {D) take on}

  47. “You try to get some sleep. I’ll _____the patient’s breakfast,” said the nurse.

  {A) see to }B) stick to C) get to D) lead to

  48. The London Marathon is a difficult race. _______, thousands of runners participate every year.

  A) Therefore B) Furthermore C) Accordingly {D) Nevertheless}

  49. The bank refused to ______ him any money, so he had to postpone buying a house.

  A) credit B) borrow {C) loan }D) lease

  50. The more a nation’s companies _______ factories abroad, the smaller that country’s recorded exports will be.

  A) lie B) spot C) stand {D) locate}

  51. Being ignorant of the law is not accepted as an ______ for breaking the law.

  {A) excuse} B) intention C) option D) approval

  52. Within two days, the army fired more than two hundred rockets and missiles at military _____ in the coastal city.

  A) goals B) aims{ C) targets} D) destinations

  53. It is said in some parts of the world, goats, rather than cows, serve as a vital _____of milk.

  A) storage B) reserve C) resource{ D) source}

  54. “This light is too______ for me to read by. Don’t we have a brighter bulb some where”, said the elderly man.

  A) mild {B} dim} C) minute D) slight

  55. We have arranged to go to the cinema on Friday, but we can be _______ and go another day.

  A) reliable B) probable C) feasible{ D) flexible}

  56. We are quite sure that we can ______our present difficulties and finish the task according to schedule.

  A) get across {B) get over} C) get away D) get off

  57. ______ recent developments we do not think your scheme is practical.

  {A) In view of} B) In case of C) In memory of D) In favor of

  58. Jessica was ______ from the warehouse to the accounting office, which was considered a promotion.

  A) delivered B) exchanged {C) transferred} D) transformed

  59. Mr. Smith asked his secretary to ______ a new paragraph in the annual report she was typing.

  A) inject B) install C) invade {D) insert}

  60. There’s the living room still to be _____, so that's my next project.

  A) abandoned {B) decorated }C) dissolved D) assessed

  61. The old paper mill has been ______ to make way for a new shopping centre.

  A) cut down B) kept down {C) torn down }D) held down

  62. It may be necessary to stop ______ in the learning process and go back to the difficult points in the lessons.

  A) at a distance B) at intervals C) at case D) at length

  63. You can hire a bicycle in many places. Usually you’ll have to pay a _________.

  A) fare B) fund {C) deposit }D) deal

  64. My grandfather had always taken a _______ interest in my work, and I had an equal admiration for the stories of his time.

  A) splendid B) weighty C) vague {D) keen}

  65. ________ quantities of water are being used nowadays with the rapid development of industry and agriculture.

  {A) Excessive} B) Extensive C) Extreme D) Exclusive  

  66. John cannot afford to go to university, _______ going abroad.

  A) nothing but B) anything but {C) not to speak of} D) nothing to speak of

  67. Most laboratory and field studies of human behavior ______ taking a situational photograph at a given time and in a given place.

  {A) involve} B) compose C) enclose D) attach

  68. If you don’t like to swim, you _____ as well stay at home.

  A) should{ B) may} C) can D) would

  69. Dr. Smith was always ______ the poor and the sick, often providing them with free medical care.

  A) reminded of B) absorbed in C) tended by {D) concerned about}

  70. Thomas Jefferson and John Adams died on July 4, 1826, the fiftieth ______ of American Independence.

  A) ceremony B) occasion C) occurrence {D) anniversary}

  Part IV Cloze (15 minutes)

  Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked [A] ,[B] ,[C] and [D] on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.

  As a physician who travels quite a lot, I spend a lot of time on planes listening for that dreaded “Is there a doctor on board?” announcement. I’ve been 71 only once — for a woman who had merely fainted. But the 72 made me quite curious about how 73 this kind of thing happens I wondered what I would do if 74 with a real midair medical emergency — without access 75 a hospital staff and the usual emergency equipment. So 76 the New England Journal of Medicine last week 77 a study about in-flight medical events, I read it 78 interest.

  The study estimated that there are a(n) 79 of 30 in-flight medical emergencies on U.S. flights every day. Most of them are not 80; fainting and dizziness are the most frequent complaints. 81 13% of them — roughly four a day — are serious enough to 82 a pilot to change course. The most common of the serious emergencies 83 heart trouble, strokes, and difficulty breathing.

  Let’s face it: plane rides are 84. For starters, cabin pressures at high altitudes are set at roughly 85 they would be if you lived at 5,000 to 8,000 feet above sea level. Most people can tolerate these pressures pretty 86, but passengers with heart disease 87 experience chest pains as a result of the reduced amount of oxygen flowing through their blood. 88 common in-flight problem is deep venous thrombosis — the so-called economy class syndrome (综合症). 89 happens, don’t panic. Things are getting better on the in-flight-emergency front. Thanks to more recent legislation, flights with at 90 one attendant are starting to install emergency medical kits to treat heart attacks.

  完形文章的出处:

  Is There a Doctor Onboard?

  As a physician who travels quite a bit, I spend a lot of time on planes listening for that dreaded " Is there a doctor onboard?" announcement. I've been called only once--for a woman who had merely fainted. But the incident made me curious about how often this kind of thing happens. I wondered what I would do if confronted with a real midair medical emergency--without access to a hospital staff and the usual emergency equipment. So when the New England Journal of Medicine last week published a study about in-flight medical events, I read it with interest.

  The study estimated that there are an average of 30 in-flight medical emergencies on US flights every day. Most of them are not grave; fainting, dizziness and hyperventilation are the most frequent complaints. But 13% of them—roughly four a day--are serious enough to require a pilot to change course. The most common of the serious emergencies include heart trouble (46%), strokes and other neurological problems (18%), and difficulty breathing (6%).

  Let's face it: plane rides are stressful. For starters, cabin pressures at high altitudes are set at roughly what they would be if you lived at 5000 to 8000 feet above sea level. Most people can tolerate these pressures pretty easily, But passengers with heart disease may experience chest pains as a result of the reduced amount of oxygen flowing through their blood. Low pressure can also cause the air in body cavities to expand -- as much as 30%. Again, most people won’t notice anything beyond mild stomach cramping. But if you've recently had an operation, your wound could open and if a medical device has been implanted in your body--a splint, a tracheotomy tube or a catheter--it could expand and cause injury. Another common in-flight problem is deep venous thrombosis--the so-called economy-class syndrome. when you sit too long in a cramped position, the blood in your legs tends to clot. Most people just get sore calves. But blood clots, left untreated, could travel to the lungs, causing breathing difficulties and even death. Such clots are readily prevented by keeping blood flowing; walk and stretch your legs when possible. Whatever you do, don’t panic. things are looking up on the in-flight-emergency front. Doctors who come to passengers' aid used to worry about getting sued; their fears have lifted somewhat since the 1998 Aviation medical Assistance Act gave them "good Samaritan" protection. and thanks to more recent legislation, flights with at least one attendant are starting to install emergency medical kits with automated defibrillators to treat heart attacks. are you still wondering if you are healthy enough to fly? if you can walk 150 ft. or climb a flight of stairs without getting winded, you'll probably do just fine. Having a Doctor close by doesn’t hurt, either.

  71 {A) called }C) Informed

  B) addressed D) surveyed

  72 A) Accident {C) incident}

  B) condition D) disaster

  73 A) soon C) many

  B) long {D} often}

  74 {A) confronted }C) identified

  B) treated D) provided

  75 A) for C) by

  {B} to} D) through

  76 A) before{ C) when}

  B) since D) while

  77 A) collected C) discovered

  B) conducted {D} published}

  78 A) by {C) with}

  B) of D) in

  79 A) amount C) sum

  {B) average} D) number

  80 A) significant C) common

  B) heavy{ D} serious}

  81 A) For {C) But}

  B) On D) So

  82 {A) require} C) engage

  B) inspire D) command

  83{A) include }C) imply

  B) confine D) contain

  84 A) enjoyable C) tedious

  B) stimulating {D) stressful}

  85 A) who C) which

  {B} what }D) that

  86 A) harshly {C) easily}

  B) reluctantly D) casually

  87 A) ought to C) used to

  {B) may} D) need

  88 A) Any C) Other

  B) One {D} Another}

  89 {A) Whatever} C) Whenever

  C) Whichever D) Wherever

  90 A) most{ C) least}

  B) worst D) best

  Part V. Writing (30 minutes)

  Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled Should the University Campus Be Open to Tourists? You should write at Least 120 words following the outline given below:

  1.名校校园正成为旅游新热点

  2.校园是否应对游客开放,人们看法不同

  3.我认为……

  Should the University Campus Be Open to Tourists?

  There is a heated debate over whether the university campus should be open to tourists, as more and more people list famous universities as tourist attractions. It is commonly accepted that university campus should embrace tourists from across the country. In contrast, others think that the university campus should be closed to tourists.

  Those who hold the first opinion suggest that the university is mainly funded by the state and the taxpayers have the right to look around the university. In their view, the tourists, both parents and prospective students, can enjoy the beautiful scenery as well as the academic, cultural and historical atmosphere during their visits. However, others think the interests of the university and its students should be taken into account. They argue that too many tourists will add a burden to the security department of the university and destroy the quiet environment for the student to study effectively.

  Considering one after another, I stand on the side of the former idea. First of all, a university should be an open place and instill the spirit of openness in its students. Furthermore, in our country, it is the people who pay the tax and support the university. Thirdly, the university should improve itself to meet the increasing demands. Therefore, the university campus should welcome all tourists.


2006年12月英语四级A卷试题、答案及文章出处详解[3]: http://insuns.com/article/15211-1.html
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