Passage Three

  When my interest shifted from space to the sea, I never expected it would cause such confusion among my friends, yet I can understand their feelings. As I have been writing and talking about space flight for the best part of 20 years, a sudden switch of interest to the depth of the sea does seem peculiar. To explain, I’d like to share my reasons behind this unusual change of mind. The first excuse I give is an economic one. Underwater exploration is so much cheaper than space flight. The first round-trip ticket to the moon is going to cost at least 10 billion dollars if you include research and development. By the end of this century, the cost will be down to a few million. On the other hand, the diving suit and a set of basic tools needed for skin diving can be bought for 20 dollars. My second argument is more philosophical. The ocean, surprisingly enough, has many things in common with space. In their different ways, both sea and space are equally hostile. If we wish to survive in either for any length of time, we need to have mechanical aids. The diving suit helped the design of the space suit. The feelings and emotions of a man beneath the sea will be much like those of a man beyond the atmosphere.

  Questions 17 to 20 are based on the passage you have just heard.

  Q17. How did the speaker’s friends respond to his change of interest?

  A) They wanted to follow his example.

  B) They fully supported his undertaking.

  {C) They were puzzled by his decision.}

  D) They were afraid he wasn’t fully prepared.

  Q18. What is one of the reasons for the speaker to switch his interest to underwater exploration?

  A) It is more exciting than space travel.

  {B) It is much cheaper than space travel.}

  C) It is much safer than space travel.

  D) It is less time-consuming than space travel.

  Q19. In what way does the speaker think diving is similar to space travel?

  A) They both attract scientists’ attention

  {B) They can both be quite challenging}

  C) They are both thought-provoking.

  D) They may both lead to surprising findings.

  Q20. What is the speaker’s purpose in giving this talk?  

  A) To show how simple the mechanical aids for diving can be.

  B) To provide an excuse for his changeable character.

  C) To explore the philosophical issues of space travel.

  {D) To explain why he took up underwater exploration.}

  Part II Reading comprehension (35 minutes)

  Directions: There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.

  Passage One

  Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.

  Just five one-hundredths of an inch thick, light golden in color and with a perfect “saddle curl,” the Lay’s potato chip seems an unlikely weapon for global domination. But its maker, Frito-Lay, thinks otherwise. “Potato chips are a snack food for the world,” said Salman Amin, the company’s head of global marketing. Amin believes there is no corner of the world that can resist the charms of a Frito-Lay potato chip.

  Frito-Lay is the biggest snack maker in America, owned by PepsiCo, and accounts for over half of the parent company’s $3 billion annual profits. But the U.S. snack food market is largely saturated, and to grow, the company has to look overseas.

  Its strategy rests on two beliefs: first, a global product offers economies of scale with which local brands cannot compete, and second, consumers in the 21st century are drawn to “global” as a concept. “Global” does not mean products that are consciously identified as American, but ones that consumers — especially young people — see as part of a modem, innovative(创新的) world in which people are linked across cultures by shared beliefs and tastes. Potato chips are an American invention, but most Chinese, for instance, do not know that Frito-Lay is an American company. Instead, Riskey, the company’s research and development head, would hope they associate the brand with the new world of global communications and business.

  With brand perception a crucial factor, Riskey ordered a redesign of the Frito-Lay logo(标识). The logo, along with the company’s long-held marketing image of the “irresistibility” of its chips, would help facilitate the company’s global expansion.

  The executives acknowledge that they try to swing national eating habits to a food created in America, but they deny that amounts to economic imperialism. Rather, they see Frito-Lay as spreading the benefits of free enterprise across the world. “We’re making products in those countries, we’re adapting them to the tastes of those countries, building businesses and employing people and changing lives,” said Steve Reinemund, PepsiCo’s chief executive.

  原文出处:

  FritoLay: Using Potato Chips to Spread the Spirit of Free Enterprise

  Just five one-hundredths of an inch thick, light golden in color and with a perfect "saddle curl," the Lay's potato chip seems an unlikely weapon for global domination.

  But its maker, Texas-based Frito-Lay, thinks otherwise. "Potato chips are a snack for the world," said Salman Amin, the company's head of global marketing. Amin believes there is no corner of the world, no race or tribe, that can resist the charms of a Frito-Lay potato chip.

  The Chinese might have their nyen gao ping, made from rice flour, and the Indians their lentil-and-chickpea namkeens, but Frito-Lay believes they would rather be eating potato chips. The company's research has shown that when given a choice between their local snack and a Frito-Lay chip, consumers in most countries will choose the chip.

  Putting its findings into practice, Frito-Lay has expanded on all five continents by buying up local snack makers or defeating them with its marketing expertise and sheer size.

  "Never have we introduced Lay's potato chips and had it not be successful," said Dwight Riskey, the research and development head who devised Frito-Lay's global strategy five years ago. "It's been successful every single place we've introduced it."

  Thinking Globally, Acting Globally

  Frito-Lay, which also produces Doritos and Chee-tos, is the biggest snack maker in the United States, with 55 percent of the potato chip market. It is owned by PepsiCo, and accounts for more than half of the parent company's $3 billion profits every year. But the U.S. snack market is largely saturated, and in order to grow — the key to remaining successful — the company had to look overseas.

  Riskey's strategy rests on two beliefs: first, that a global product offers economies of scale with which local brands cannot compete, and second that consumers in the 21st century are drawn to "global" as a concept. By "global," Riskey does not mean products that are consciously identified as American, like Coca-Cola and Nike, but ones that consumers — especially young people — see as part of a modern, innovative world in which people are linked across cultures by shared beliefs and tastes. Potato chips are an American invention — created by a chef in Saratoga Springs, N.Y. in 1853 — but most Chinese, for instance, do not know that Frito-Lay is an American company. Instead, Riskey would hope they associate the brand with the brave new world of global communications and business.

  With brand perception a crucial factor, Riskey ordered a redesign of the Frito-Lay logo, eventually settling on a red logo with a banner suggesting "celebration" and a sun denoting "universality." The logo, along with the company's long-held marketing image of the "irresistibility" of its chips, would underpin the company's global expansion.

  Taking Aim at the Local Snack

  Frito-Lay honed a strategy for moving into new countries where a local snack industry is already established. Rather than face the costs of building a new business in an unfamiliar market, the company identifies the leading local snack manufacturer and offers to buy it out. If the local manufacturer refuses to sell, Frito-Lay moves into the market on its own, using its size and marketing experience to cut into the local manufacturer's sales. Often, at that point, the local company gives in and sells, sometimes for a lower price than the original offer.

  If the preferred local snack is already a potato chip, Frito-Lay rebrands it. After buying Walkers, the dominant chip in Britain, the Texas company refashioned the Walkers logo into the red "banner sun" design, as a first step toward changing the brand to Frito-Lay outright. Similar plans are under way for Sabritas in Mexico and Simba in South Africa. "We just say, 'You know that stuff you love? Well, now it's going to be called Lay's,'" said Riskey.

  If the locals are used to eating something other than potato chips, Frito-Lay devises "differentiated products" that bridge the way to the chip. For the Indian market, the company created Kurkure Twisteez, a potato snack that comes in local flavors like Masala Munch.

  Sometimes Frito-Lay's products are so unfamiliar that the advertising campaigns focus on educating consumers in the hope of changing their "consumption habits." In China, Frito-Lay ads show potatoes actually being sliced, so people know where the chips come from. In Turkey, the company distributed pamphlets suggesting new recipes and eating habits: "Try a tuna sandwich for lunch, and join it with a bag of chips."

  Looking for 'New Occasions'

  Like other multinational companies, Frito-Lay has learned that the best managers are often locals who know the market and culture well. Although they must follow certain global standards — such as the company's long-held marketing theme of "irresistibility" — regional managers are encouraged to look for for new "occasions" to increase sales in their specific areas.

  In Holland, where the Dutch tend to eat potato chips only at night, as an after-dinner snack, manager Eugene Willemsen focused his efforts on changing their habits by distributing free samples on the streets during the day. He also targeted high schools, knowing that children were driving Frito-Lay's growth in Holland. "For us, the biggest opportunity for growth is to penetrate new occasions with salty snacks," Willemsen said.

  In South Africa, national sales manager Arnold Selokane boosted sales in native townships by hiring local drivers to make deliveries, making the product seem less foreign. In China, sales director Jackson Chiu raised sales by 57 percent in one year, in part by focusing on girls and young women. "We market to girls and the boys follow," he said.

  The company encourages such initiative by flying promising managers to the Frito-Lay headquarters in Plano, Texas, or the PepsiCo campus in Purchase, N.Y., for intensive courses on marketing and business development. Selokane and Chiu were among 200 PepsiCo employees honored at the company's annual "Ring of Honor" ceremony in 2001. With honorees from 50 countries, speaking 30 different languages, the four-day program resembled the United Nations' General Assembly, complete with headsets and banks of translators.

  Not Just Potato Chips

  The executives behind Frito-Lay's global expansion acknowledge that they try to swing national eating habits to a food that was created in America, but they deny that amounts to economic imperialism. Rather, they see Frito-Lay as spreading the benefits of free enterprise across the world. "We're making products in those countries, we're adapting it to the tastes of those countries, building businesses and employing people and changing lives," said Steve Reinemund, PepsiCo's chief executive.

  Frank Wong, who runs Frito-Lay's operations in China, believes that by training Chinese managers the company is helping build up an educated middle class that will play a major role in the country's economic transformation. "We bring a lot to China, a lot more than just the brand called Lay's," he said.

  21. It is the belief of Frito-Lay’s head of global marketing that _____.

  A) potato chips can hardly be used as a weapon to dominate the world market

  B) their company must find new ways to promote domestic sales

  C) the light golden color enhances the charm of their company’s potato chips

  {D) people all over the world enjoy eating their company’s potato chips}

  22. What do we learn about Frito-Lay from Paragraph 2?

  A) Its products used to be popular among overseas consumers.

  B) Its expansion has caused fierce competition in the snack marker.

  C) It gives half of its annual profits to its parent company.

  {D) It needs to turn to the world market for development.}

  23. One of the assumptions on which Frito-Lay bases its development strategy is that _____.

  {A) consumers worldwide today are attracted by global brands}

  B) local brands cannot compete successfully with American brands

  C) products suiting Chinese consumers’ needs bring more profits

  D) products identified as American will have promising market value

  24. Why did Riskey have the Frito-Lay logo redesigned?

  A) To suit changing tastes of young consumers.

  {B) To promote the company’s strategy of globalization. }

  C) To change the company’s long-held marketing image.

  D) To compete with other American chip producers.

  25. Frito-Lay’s executives claim that the promoting of American food in the international market _____.

  A) won’t affect the eating habits of the local people

  B) will lead to economic imperialism

  {C) will be in the interest of the local people}

  D) won’t spoil the taste of their chips

  Passage Two

  Question 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.

  In communities north of Denver, residents are pitching in to help teachers and administrators as the Vrain School District tries to solve a $13.8 million budget shortage blamed on mismanagement. “We’re worried about our teachers and principals, and we really don’t want to lose them because of this,” one parent said. “If we can help ease their financial burden, we will. ”

  Teachers are grateful, but know it may be years before the district is solvent(有偿还能力的). They feel really good about the parent support, but they realize it’s impossible for them to solve this problem.

  The 22,000-student district discovered the shortage last month. “It’s extraordinary. Nobody would have imagined something happening like this at this level,” said State Treasurer Mike Coffman.

  Coffman and district officials last week agreed on a state emergency plan freeing up a $9.8 million loan that enabled the payroll(工资单) to be met for 2,700 teachers and staff in time for the holidays.

  District officials also took $1.7 million from student-activity accounts in its 38 schools.

  At Coffman’s request, the District Attorney has begun investigating the district’s finances. Coffman says he wants to know whether district officials hid the budget shortage until after the November election, when voters approved a $212 million bond issue for schools.

  In Frederick, students’ parents are buying classroom supplies and offering to pay for groceries and utilities to keep first-year teachers and principals in their jobs.

  Some $36,000 have been raised in donations from Safeway. A Chevrolet dealership donated $10,000 and forgave the district’s $10,750 bill for renting the driver education cars. IBM contributed 4,500 packs of paper.

  “We employ thousands of people in this community,” said Mitch Carson, a hospital chief executive, who helped raise funds. “We have children in the schools, and we see how they could be affected.”

  At Creek High School, three students started a website that displays newspaper articles, district information and an email forum(论坛). “Rumors about what’s happening to the district are moving at lighting speed,” said a student. “We wanted to know the truth, and spread that around instead.”

  原文出处

  Community bailing out broke school district

  Parents are offering to help pay grocery and utility bills. Businesses are donating cash and a group of students run an informational Web site.

  In communities just north of Denver, residents are pitching in to help teachers and administrators as the St. Vrain Valley School District grapples with a $13.8 million budget shortfall blamed on mismanagement.

  "We're worried about our teachers and our principals, and we really don't want to lose them because of this," parent Merrill Bohanning, 44, said. "If we can help ease their financial burden, we will."

  Teachers are grateful, but know it may be years before the district is solvent.

  "Teachers feel really good about the parent support," said Jeannie Beyer, spokeswoman for the St. Vrain Valley Education Association. "But they realize it's not going to be possible for them to solve this problem."

  The 22,000-student district in parts of Weld, Boulder and Larimer counties discovered the shortfall last month. The finance director resigned and an assistant superintendent has been suspended. District officials said an independent audit showed the two mismanaged the budget but did not commit fraud.

  "It's extraordinary. Nobody would have ever imagined something happening like this at this level," said State Treasurer Mike Coffman. "I think the state needs to learn from this."

  It takes a village

  Coffman and district officials last week agreed on a state bailout plan freeing up a $9.8 million loan that enabled the payroll to be met for 2,700 teachers and staff in time for the holidays.

  The plan calls for all district employees to take a 7.1 percent pay cut beginning January 1 and a hiring freeze through June 2004. Administrators who used to pay $1 a month for family health insurance now will pay $1 for themselves and the regular premium for the rest of their families.

  District officials also took $1.7 million from student-activity accounts in its 38 schools.

  At Coffman's request, the Boulder District Attorney has begun investigating the district's finances. Coffman has said he wants to know whether district officials hid the budget shortfall until after the November election, when voters approved a $212 million bond issue for schools.

  In Frederick about 30 miles northeast of Denver, Bohanning and other parents of students at Prairie Ridge Elementary School are buying classroom supplies and offering to pay for groceries and utility bills to keep first-year teachers and principals in their jobs.

  Some $36,000 have been raised in donations from Safeway. A Chevrolet dealership chipped in $10,000 and forgave the district's $10,750 bill for renting the driver education cars. IBM chipped in 4,500 reams of paper.

  "We employ thousands of people in this community," said Mitch Carson, a hospital chief executive officer, who helped raise funds. "We have children in the schools, and we see how they could be affected."

  At Silver Creek Middle-Senior High School, three juniors started a Web site called www.poorschool.com that displays newspaper articles, district information and an e-mail forum.

  "Rumors about what is happening to the district are moving at lightning speed," site co-creator Mitch Lubbers, 17, said. "We wanted to know the truth, and spread that around instead."

  26. What has happened to the Vrain School District?

  {A) A huge financial problem has arisen.}

  B) Many schools there are mismanaged.

  C) Lots of teachers in the district are planning to quit.

  D) Many administrative personnel have been laid off.

  27. How did the residents in the Vrain School District respond to the budget shortage?

  A) They felt somewhat helpless about it.

  B) They accused those responsible for it.

  {C) They pooled their efforts to help solve it.}

  D) They demanded a thorough investigation.

  28. In the view of State Treasurer Mike Coffman, the educational budget shortage is _________.

  A) unavoidable

  {B) unthinkable }

  C) insolvable

  D) irreversible

  29. Why did Coffman request an investigation?

  {A) To see if there was a deliberate cover-up of the problem.}

  B) To find out the extent of the consequences of the case.

  C) To make sure that the school principals were innocent.

  D) To stop the voters approving the $212 million bond issue.

  30. Three high school students started a website in order to __________.

  A) attract greater public attention to their needs

  B) appeal to the public for contributions and donations

  C) expose officials who neglected their duties

  {D) keep people properly informed of the crisis}


2006年12月英语四级A卷试题、答案及文章出处详解[2]: http://insuns.com/article/15211-1.html

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