隐山石英语提示:第一册部分见这里《新概念英语》中使用的美学修辞【一】

The guests had, of course, realized this from the moment Bessie opened the door for them, and, long before the final catastrophe, had had a difficult time trying to conceal the amusement. (新概念第三册)

  The girl, tears streaming down her face, begged to be allowed to slip into the guard's van.(新概念第三册)

  使用的修辞——夸张

  夸张(Hyperbole)又称为夸饰,即为了表达的需要,故意言过其实,对客观的事物或人物进行扩大或缩小的描述。

  夸张修辞常见又分为两种形式,其一是"利用数字或表示数量的词组进行夸张"(即上面第二句例句,其中的a thousand and one jobs意思就等同于many jobs);其二是"通过强化某些词语的语义进行夸张描述"(即上面第一句、第三句以及第四句例句,其中loud enough to wake the dead 、the final catastrophe以及 tears steaming down分别突出"声音之响的程度"、"蛋糕差点撞上姑姑这件事情的严重性"以及"眼泪哗哗直流的流量之大")。

  再如:

  1)Splendid cheeses they were, ripe and mellow, and with a two-hundred horse-power scent about them that might have been warranted to carry three miles, and knock a man over at two-hundred yards.

  这些奶酪又香又嫩,好极了。四溢的香气足有二百匹马力那么强大,管保三英里以外能闻到,二百码远处站着的人被熏倒。

  作者巧妙地运用了三个数字来描写奶酪的香气,给人身临其境、如闻其味的美感。

  2)Faustus Was this the face that launcht a thousand ships,

  And burnt the topless Towers of Iliums?

  Sweet Helen, make me immortal with a kiss:

  Her lips suck forth my soul, see where it files.

  浮士得 就是这张脸使千帆齐发,

  把伊利安的巍巍城楼烧成灰的么?

  甜蜜的海伦,你一吻就使我永生。

  看,她的嘴唇吸走了我的灵魂。

  3)Seventy times have I told you not to be late.

  我不知跟你说过多少次不要迟到。

  4)His anger nearly burst his belly.

  他气得肚子简直炸裂了。

  5)Everyone was clapping their hands off.

  每个人把手都拍下来了,即"每个人在热烈鼓掌"。

  6)It was so hot a noon that the leaves had to gasp for breath.

  那天中午,天气热得连树上的叶子也在喘气。

  例四:

  An individual human existence should be like a river--small at first, narrowly contained within its banks, and rushing passionately past boulders and over waterfalls. Gradually the river grows wider, the banks recede, the waters flow more quietly, and in the end, without any visible break, they become merged in the sea, and painlessly lose their individual being. ( 新概念第四册)

  使用的修辞——扩喻

  扩喻(Extended Metaphor)即隐喻的扩大形式,是一种结构松散,但比隐喻含义更明朗的比喻方式。而扩喻的特点是"喻体+延伸体(即引申扩展部分)"。实际上,延伸体仍然属于喻体的组成部分,其作用是辅助喻体描绘或说明主体。延伸体可以是词组,可以是从句,甚至可以是一段话(比如上文的例句中,破折号后面的一段话就是对喻体river的解释和补充,以辅助喻体对本体an individual human existence 进行更为具体、更为形象的描述)。

  再如:

  Laws are like cobwebs, where the small files are caught and the great break through.

  法律如同蜘蛛网,小的蚊蝇给网捕住,大的则一冲而过。

  where 从句 作为喻体的延伸部分,对主体进行更为深入透彻的理解。俗话说"法网恢恢,疏而不漏";但根据西方人的观点却是"只能扣住小鬼,却逮不住阎王",通过这一扩喻的使用,使人们对西方法律知识有了更深层的了解。

  篇幅所限,本文仅列举一二,可谓书中只有颜如玉,若要领略英语之美,掌握修辞之意,不妨细细品读新概念教材,定会让你受益匪浅


《新概念英语》中使用的美学修辞【二】: http://insuns.com/article/14566-1.html